ABOUT GEORGIA - Annotation
Annotations According Regions.
Tbilisi, Kakheti, Kartli, Imereti, Samtskhe-Javakheti, Racha, Khevi,Svaneti, Samegrelo, Khevsureti.
Tbilisi, Kakheti, Kartli, Imereti, Samtskhe-Javakheti, Racha, Khevi,Svaneti, Samegrelo, Khevsureti.
- Sameba - The Holy Trinity Cathedral of Tbilisi commonly known as Sameba is the main cathedral of the Georgian Orthodox Church located in Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia. Constructed between 1995 and 2004, it is the third-tallest Eastern Orthodox cathedral in the world and considered to be one of the largest religious buildings in the South Caucasus along with the Saint Gregory the Illuminator Cathedral in Yerevan (known as the Cathedral of Yerevan). Sameba is a synthesis of traditional styles dominating the Georgian church architecture at various stages in history and has some Byzantine undertones.
- Metekhi - Metekhi is a domed church located in old Tbilisi. It was built in XIII c. in the place of the former existing church and royal palace of V c. It's even today an artistic-architectural accent of Tbilisi. The creation of XX c. – the statue of the king Vakhtang Gorgasali – the founder of the capital Tbilisi is located next to the church erected on the lofty plateau of the bank of the river Mtkvari. Both – the church and the statue really deserve the observer's attention.
- Peristsvaleba church – The mountain – situated in the South part of Tbilisi with the medieval fortress-tower and Peristsvaleba church – bears the name-Tabory that was the place of Our Savior's transfiguration. The church was destroyed and rebuilt several times during the centuries for the numerous invasions. Nowadays, there is a domed church of XX-XXI cc. and a monastery
- Narikala Fortress – Thecitadel Narikala is a mother-fortress and fortification structure of IV-XVIII cc. It is an inseparable part of a city history and one of the ancient archaeological complexes of modern Tbilisi. There are churches, palaces and other buildings beyond the fence of the fortress.
- Abanotubani (Bath district) - Abanotubani (Baths district) is a site where the capital of Georgia was raised. It is a place where the legend of natural hot springs is really confirmed. This district has been the exotic site of Tbilisi for years – Tbilisi baths are the patterns of East Architecture of XVII-XVIII cc.
- Sioni Cathedral- Sioni – a church dedicated to Holy Virgin was built in VI-VII cc. in the old and central district of Tbilisi. It was destroyed several times by the enemy invasions. Nowadays, the domed church is located on its place that is the typical pattern of XII-XIII cc. Georgian Architecture. This church adorned with XIX c. paintings and the wall-paintings of the late XX c. has the special place in the history of Georgian culture. It is the distinguished monument of modern Tbilisi.
- Anchiskhati – Anchiskhati –an ancient Christian church of Tbilisi is a basilica of VI c. It was dedicated to the Holy Virgin, but later in the XVII c. it got the additional appellation of Anchiskhati following the movement of Anchiskhati icon from the Monastery of Anchi. The unique icon created in VI c. was chased in XII c. by Beka Opizari – the famous goldsmith of that period. You can see this magnificent icon in the Golden Fond of the Art State Museum.
- Kashueti – Kashueti is a domed church built in the beginning of XX c. on the Rustaveli Avenue – the main highway of the capital. It is the only paragon in the history of Georgian Architecture, when one construction exactly repeats the monumental forms and decors of another church, in this case - Samtavisi church that was already built in XI c. The unprecedented event – painting of church in the Communist epoch was created by Lado Gudiashvili – a well-known Georgian artist.
- Mtatsminda – Mtatsminda is a sanctuary of Georgian poetic world. This site has been called "Mtatsminda" (holy mount) since X c. There is a monastery complex and the Pantheon of Georgian writers and public figures that is arranged around the church on the terrace.
- Shardeni Street - Shardeni Street is one of the ancient streets of Tbilisi. It got this name "Shardeni" for the honor of the European traveler Sharden. This street is famous for the enamel gallery and studios where you can see the unique enamel goods. Shardeni Street gives the peculiar color to our ancient city.
- Dzveli (Old) Shuamta, Akhali (New) Shuamta – These two beautiful monastery complexes are only 2-3 km. distances apart from each other. One of them was erected in V-VII cc. and it presents the unification of not ordinary composition of basilica and domed churches. The another complex was built in XVI c. and it is a typical pattern of the Architectural Art of this Age.
- Gremi – Gremi is one of the great and significant towns of East Georgia. It was an indivisible part of historical reality of XVI c. Georgia – with its palaces, churches, kulbaks (kulbaki – counter) and baths. The church of Archangel built in XVI c. still proudly overlooks once beautiful and famous town. This church has really distinguished impression on the observer.
- The Fortress of Kvareli - The Fortress of Kvareli is one of the hugest fortresses of XV-XVIII cc. in Kakheti. There are a few towers and gates placed in the fence. The fortress is an important historical monument and the typical point of feudal Georgian reality.
- David-Gareja - David-Gareja - one of the greatest cave-monastery complexes of the world is situated in 60-70 km distance from Tbilisi and it is stretched on 25 km area. The ancient monastery - David's Lavra was established in VI c. by Assyrian father – David Garejeli. Two other monasteries (or so called branches) – Dodos Rka and Natlismtsemeli were founded in the same period; but three other monasteries: Udabno, Chichkhituri and Bertubani were established later. They all belong to the complex of David-Gareja. The monastery life, ecclesiastical and creative life had been continuing during the medieval centuries. There are a lot of cave-cells, churches, chapels, satrapezo (dinning halls) in the monastery complex. The walls of many of them have preserved the ancient specimens of fresco-paintings. The whole David-Gareja monastery has the significant place in Georgian cultural history.
- Alaverdi – Alaverdi is a main construction of the medieval monastery complex and it is the loftiest church in Georgia. Alaverdi church built in XI c. was dedicated to St. George and it is a wonderful pattern of Architecture. The complex is surrounded with fence and it includes: a palace, a satrapezo (dining hall), marani (wine-cell) and other constructions. The monastery was established in VI c. by Assyrian father – Ioseb Alaverdeli on this site, that had been the pagan worship spot before.
- Nekresi – Nekresi is an ancient monastery complex erected on the mountain covered with greenery not far from the village – Kvareli. The impressive view of Alazani plain is opened in front of you from here. This architectural complex with its different churches of IV, VII, VIII-IX cc.; small chapels, episcopacy palace and other interesting structures – is the eminent phenomenon of medieval Georgian history and culture. Assyrian father – St. Abibos Nekreseli lived and worked there in VI c.
- Ikalto – Ikalto – one of the important monastery complexes of medieval centuries is located in 7 km. distance from town – Telavi. There you can visit the domed church of VI c. established by Assyrian father-St. Zenon Ikaltoeli, another domed church of IX c.; small chapel of XII-XIII cc. and the remains of well-known Academy building.
- Gurjaani Kvelatsminda - Gurjaani Kvelatsminda – the only two-domed church in Georgia is the completely distinguished cult structure of Georgian Architecture. It is an establisher of innovation and new methods of VIII century painting. It attracts the observer with the preserved fragments of façade paintings and artistic treatment of not typical building material – such as brick.
- Martkopi Gvtaeba –The monastery complex - Martkopi Gvtaeba is a significant monument of Georgian Architecture that was established in VI c. by Assyrian father – St. Anthon Martkopeli. The main structure – domed church had been reconstructed several times and got the last face in XIX c. It is built with carving stone and decorated richly with ornaments. The church is surrounded with fence full of embrasures. Here you can see the four-stored bell-tower (1629 y.) with the tower built by St. Anthon Martkopeli.
- Khirsa – Khirsa is a historical site in Kakheti (Signagi district). The town-type settlement was established in the I millennium BC, but Assyrian father St. Stepane Khirseli established the monastery here in VI c. The domed church built on the place of the basilica (VI c.) is preserved up today. It was reconstructed for several times in the following centuries: VIII-IX-XI-XVI.
- Bodbe convent - Bodbe convent complex and episcopacy center is situated in 2km. distance from town Signagi. The main church – three-nave basilica is built on the grave of St. Nino – the enlightener of Georgians. It belongs to the Early Feudal Age from the point of architectural shapes, but today its appearance has changed. The church was reconstructed and painted in XIX c. Now there is a nunnery and miracle spring.
- Tsinandali – Village - Tsinandali is famous for the best vine species. The winery was founded on the basis of prince estate in 1889 y. The wine tasting is still possible in the winery where the unique wine collection is kept. The residence of Alexandre Chavchavadze who was a romantic poet and the prince of Kakheti is built there. There is the beautiful English Park designed by French designer – Arnold Regeli, in front of the Palace. You can see the monument of Georgian Architecture – Saparasi church in this village. Also the archaeological monument of Hellenistic and Antique Age has been revealed near it.
Shida (inner) Kartli
- The Tomb of Mtskheta - The Tomb of Mtskheta is a unique, not typical structure, it is a mausoleum-type tomb of I c. discovered through the Archaeological excavations.
- Samtavro – Samtavro is a church of XI c. built in the densely populated area, in the center of the Georgian ancient town. It has a dominant role in the whole architectural complex with its magnificent stone carving ornaments and decoration. St. Nino – the enlightener of Georgia lived exactlyhere in the beginning of the IV century. Mirian – the first Christian king of Georgia distinguished this site by the constructing of a small church here. It is still in a good condition and it is the earliest Christian church in the town.
- Svetitskhoveli - Svetitskhoveli is a monumental church situated in the centre of Mtskheta. It is a site where the robe of Christ is buried and the first Christian church was built. The ruins of this church you can still see in the wide interior of XI century Cathedral. It is the largest church in Georgia and the best paragon of Georgian Architecture. The Georgian kings are buried here. The wall-paintings of XVII c. are changed by the wall-paintings of XIX c. The gate of XI c. was placed in the fence wall and also the palace of the same epoch was revealed beyond the walls of this fence.
- Dzalisa, Dionyse`s Palace – Dzalisa is a town-type settlement of II-IV cc. Antique period with Romanian baths, so called "Dionyse`s House" and still preserved unique mosaic paintings; also there is a vast palace-complex extended on 2500mІ with swimming-pool and with different interesting structures typical to that epoch.
- Jvari (in Mtskheta) – Jvari is a unique paragon of landscape and architecture mixture. The special monument of Georgian culture built in VI-VII cc. is located on the mountain erected near the confluence of the rivers – Mtkvari and Aragvi in Mtskheta. The church is distinguished with the harmonious forms, refined interior, really very beautiful relieves, ancient Georgian inscriptions and also with the sculptural images of the church builders.
- St. Nino erected the wooden cross – symbol of Christianity exactly on this mountain in IV c. where later the church was built by the order of Governor (Eristavi). Jvari is the stage importance building not only in Georgian but also in Caucasian art history.
- Shiomgvime – Shiomgvime is one of the well-known monasteries and the distinguished relic of VI c. cult architecture of Georgia. It was established by Assyrian father – St. Shio Mgvimeli. This is a complex with saints` life history and the structures of various epochs that is surrounded with landscape of rocky mountains. This complex includes a big church decorated with fresco-paintings, a satrapezo(dining hall), egvderi (structure next to the main church) built on saint's grave, a gate and others have the unforgettable impression on the observer. There are over 100 caves as natural origin as carving by monks on the slopes of the rocky mountain ridge.
- Armazi gorge - Armazi gorge was the residence of the famous Iberian kings with the palace of II-III cc. and the ruins of baths, also with the tombs of Governor (Pitiakshi) and the unique archaeological exponents discovered in these tombs. It is an air-open museum which fence is full of stone columns decorated with Georgian ornaments and inscriptions retelling us the past and culture of our country.
- Bagineti – Bagineti is a residence of Iberian kings and inner fortress-acropolis of ancient Mtskheta. This town built on the cliff is mentioned in the annals of ancient Greek and Romanian historians. The construction of the town began in III c. BC during the reign of Legendary Georgian king – Parnavazi and it was continuing through centuries. Therefore, the observer can see the whole spectrum of various type structures.
- Zedazeni – Zedazeni is an ancient monastery complex located on the top of Saguramo mountain ridge near the town Mtskheta. It was established by Assyrian father Ioane Zedazneli in VI c. The hall type church was built on his grave, later the big basilica was constructed on its place in VIII c. The wonderful panorama of the town Mtskheta stretched on the plain is opened from this complex.
- Urbnisi – Urbnisi is one of the ancient towns of Georgia that is presented with diverse fortification and town structures. Though the town was destroyed by the fire during the Arab invasion in VIII c., the great basilica of VI c. has reached up to present day in quite good condition. It is a monumental Architectural monument of Early Feudal Age with the strictness and simplicity so characterized of that Age.
- Archaeological Urbnisi - Archaeological Urbnisi is located in 10 km distance from Kareli. It is mentioned in the historical annals since Hellenistic Age. The human trace of Late Bronze Age, Antique Age and Early Feudal Age is discovered in its vicinity by the Archaeological excavations. According to the excavations it was a densely populated area of IV c. BC which had wide connections with other countries.
- Gori Fortress - Gori Fortress built on the mountain overlooks the town constructed on the plain. The pattern of medieval fortification architecture has preserved up to present day. The ancient stone work of I millennium is revealed under its walls.
- Ateni Sioni – You will witness the unique synthesis of architecture and painting in the wonderful gorge of the river – Tana. Ateni Sioni – a central cross-domed church built in VII c. is decorated with relief sculptures and fresco-paintings. There you can see the religious paintings, the national characteristic frescos of Georgian kings and local Feudal governors dated back to X century.
- Uplistsikhe – Uplistsikhe is a monastery town of Pagan Age and one of the distinguished and famous towns of Medieval Georgia. This Architectural complex is cut in the volcanic rock and stretched on 9, 5 ha territory. It had the special functions over the centuries. This magnificent complex with churches, alters, secret tunnel, wine-cells, wine-presses, ritual sacred way, defensive walls and towers, satrapezoes (dinner halls) and Christian churches – attracts and impresses the observer.
- Samtavisi - Samtavisi-a perfect architectural monument of XI c. is located in Kaspi district. St. Assyrian father – Isidore Samtaveli lived and worked here in VI c. It is a cross-domed church; its facades are decorated with ornaments made with high skill. The monument is distinguished with harmonious proportions and virtually made ornaments. There are the ruins of episcopacy palace and tower bell of XVII c. within the fence that surrounds the church.
- Kintsvisi – Kintsvisi monastery complex - the unique paragon of Georgian Architecture is located in Kareli district in Inner Kartli and it includes: the cross-domed church dedicated to St. Nicholas built with brick in the beginning of XIII c. that was wholly painted, nowadays only the paintings of Georgian kings (St. Tamara, George III, Lasha-George) and the frescos depicted the Christian holidays are preserved; there also you can see the church of Holy Virgin, other small churches, a fence and a tower-bell.
- Tsilkani – Tsilkani is one of the ancient villages in the East Georgia. Here, the king Bakar built the episcopacy cathedral of Tsilkani. The three-nave basilica was built on its place during the reign of the king Vakhtang Gorgasali in V c.; then it was reconstructed into the domed church. Assyrian father – Ise Tsilkneli lived and worked here in VI century.
- Breti – Breti is a historic village in Shida (Inner) Kartli region. Assyrian father St. Piros worked and lived here in VI century. He established the monastery center that had been the heart of the culture and crafts for centuries. The church belongs to the hall-type and it is built with cobble stone. St Father's grave is located in the church.
- Ali – The Church dedicated to Holy Virgin is built in 1871 in the village Ali. The monastery had been built on this site before and it was established by Assyrian father Michael Ulumboeli. It had been destroyed several times for enemy invasions. At last the hall-type church was built in XIX century; but the Asomtavruli inscription of XI is preserved in the basement of apse.
- Dedoplis (Queen's) Field - Dedoplis (Queen's) Field is in 3 km from the village Aradeti in Shida (Inner) Kartli region. The king residence, monastery complex including cult and agricultural structures, also the settlements and graves of Kurums ( pagan priests) and slaves (II-I cc.) are discovered during the Archaeological excavations.
Kvemo (lower) Kartli
- Bolnisi Sioni – Bolnisi Sioni –a Christian church of V c. – is an outstanding example of the monumental basilicas in Georgian Architecture. It possesses ancient inscriptions, numerous patterns of relief sculptures placed in the architectural interior, stone ornaments of the faзade, also one can observe the harmonious mixture of stern interior and pictorial exterior.
- Kveshi Fortress – TheMedieval fortress Kveshi is built on the lofty rock in Kvemo (Lower) Kartli and its summit is surrounded with stronghold. The only entrance of the fortress is the tunnel cut in the rock. Kveshi is mentioned in the historical sources since VII c. and it had an important role in the life of Georgia till XVIII c. There are preserved the churches on the fortress and around it.
- Tandzia – Tandzia is an ancient village in Bolnisi district and it was a residence of Kvemo Kartli owners. There are preserved the ruins of palace and church of XVII c. in the village. Here you can visit the museum of Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani who was a confessor of the royal palace, an ambassador of Europe and a famous public figure.
- Dmanisi – Dmanisi is the medieval town-type settlement – the heart and soul of Georgia –where the remainder of the ancient European who lived 1,800 000 years ago was discovered. There is a well-known Christian basilica of VI c. next to these world-importance achievements. So not only the history of centuries but also the history of millenniums will open in front of your eyes.
- Gelati – Gelati is one of the greatest monastery complex of Georgia established in XII c. – the "Golden Age" of Georgian culture. The prominent pattern of monumental Architecture – main church of this great complex – is somehow the museum of mosaic and fresco paintings. The important educational and cultural center – the famous medieval Academy is built next to it. There are unified the churches built during XII-XIV cc. and ornamented with paintings, bell tower erected above the spring and the grave of David IV the Builder – the king of Georgia and the founder of this complex. The ruins of ancient hospital so called "Sokhteri" by the local inhabitants are still left in 200 m. distance from the fence of the complex.
- Bagrati - Bagrati Cathedral is one of the greatest and stage importance Architectural relic in Georgian Art history. The Cathedral built on the edge of X-XI cc. was decorated richly with ornaments and relieves. As it is said the church was also adorn with mosaic. The Cathedral was exploded in XVII c. therefore the dome fell down and the whole structure damaged. Though this well-known Cathedral still impresses the observer. It belongs to the heritage of the world culture and it is included in the list of UNESCO world importance monuments.
- Sataplia – Mount Sataplia (Honey Mountain) is the ancient reserve in the West Georgia. You can see about 200 footprints of both carnivorous and herbivorous dinosaurs, the caves full of stalagmites and stalactites and with corridor type halls in Sataplia. You can also visit the biospeleological museum there.
- Vani – Vani is a temple complex of III c. BC. The famous town-chapel constructed with terraces includes churches, alters, mosaic and pillar halls and gates of pagan period. The cult structures, unique specimen of gold-smith, ritual things and etc. are discovered during the archaeological excavations and they all are preserved in the local museum.
- Ubisa – Ubisa is a hall-type church of XIV c. dedicated to St. George, located in Imereti region. The church is decorated with XIV century unique paintings that are called "Paleologosy" style in the literature of art critics. Beside the pictures of 12 Christian celebrations you can see the scenes depicted the life of St. George there.
- Katskhi Pillar – The Katskhi pillar is a natural limestone monolith located at the village of Katskhi in western Georgian region of Imereti, near the town of Chiatura. It is approximately 40 metres (130 ft) high, and overlooks the small river valley of Katskhura, a right affluent of the Q'virila.
- Vardzia – Vardzia is one of the important historical monuments of rock-carving complexes. There you can see about 300 caves: halls, churches, cells, satrapezo (dining halls), chapels and hiding rooms. It is really grand and impressive monastery. This complex cut in XII c. - Golden Age of Georgian culture is ornamented with the unique artistic works of that period.
- Rabati Castle – Rabati Castle is a medieval castle complex in Akhaltsikhe, Georgia. Built in the 13th century, initially was called the Lomisa castle until it was conquered by Ottomans.
- Sapara – The medieval monastery complex – Sapara is stretched in the picturesque site far from populated area in the mountainous region of South Georgia. The ensemble contains: a main church, few chapels, bell tower and palace. It was a residence of Jakels – the owners of Samtskhe region and it was also their patrimonial graveyard. Their fresco-portraits are presented in the interior of the church. The fortress built on the top of the mountain overlooks the monastery surrounded with fence and they both are perceived as the united complex.
- Zarzma – Zarzma is a famous paragon of XVI century Georgian Art, built in South Georgia. This monument is decorated with fresco-paintings. The historical portraits gain the more importance to its wall-painting.
- Chule church - Chule church – Georgian architectural monument is a domed church of XIV c., dedicated to St. George. It is located in the historical Samtskhe region, in 5km. distance from Adigeni district.
- Golden Fortress - Golden Fortress built in the end of XIII c. and in the beginning of XIV c. is located in Adigeni district. It belonged to Jakeli-the owner (Atabag) of Samtskhe and played an important role in the battles against the Turks in XV-XVI cc. The fortress has a complicated plan structure arranged in three-terraces. Nowadays it is too damaged.
- Khertvisi – Khertvisi is a famous fortress in historic Meskheti region located in 14 km from Vardzia – monastery complex. It always played an important role in the life of Georgia during the medieval centuries. The fortress existed in X c. Its towers and common structure are preserved up to present day. The observers and visitors are attracted with the perfect combination of natural rocks and constructed walls.
- Tmogvi Fortress - Tmogvi Fortress – the historic fortress in Javakheti region is erected on the lofty rocky mountain on the left bank of the river Mtkvari. It has been mentioned in the historic annals since X century. It controlled the road that passed from Asia to Georgia. Now only the traces of these grand structures are preserved with the ruins of palaces, bridges and churches.
- Tsunda – Tsunda - Georgian Architecture monument of XII-XIII cc. is situated in the historical town of Javakheti. It is a hall type church erected on the small rock and built with exact stones carved cleanly and it is ornamented richly. The church is located on the tomb of saints.
- Nikortsminda – Nikortsminda is one of the beautiful part of Georgia and the unique paragon of Georgian Architecture built in XI c. in this wonderful vicinity. Architecture, sculpture and wall-painting create the united art work of synthetical nature; but the main typical point of this relic is the amazingly diverse ornamentations. None of the motives and components is repeated. The creative result of infinite fantasy and artistic thought is the stone ornaments placed in the faзade of the church as the light lace.
- Barakoni – Barakoni built in XVIII c. in Racha region is a church lining with carving stones and ornamented richly. It continues the traditions of Medieval Georgian Architectural Art and at the same time it is the completely individual relic.
- Sori – Sori is a hall-type church dedicated to St. George built in Sori - the mountainous village of Racha. Its walls are decorated with the fine fresco-paintings that were painted by the artist – David for the order of Racha Governors (Eristavi) – the Charelidzes in XIV c. The paintings of Sori church became the significant specimen of new style in the history of Georgian monumental paintings.
- Zemo (Higher) Krikhi - Zemo (Higher) Krikhi is the village in Oni district surrounded with lofty mountains. Here you can see the church painted in XIV c.
- Arsha Fortress – Arsha is a fortress of mainly natural origin encompassed in the Caucasus Mountains. The plateau of rocky mountain erected among the big mountains has transformed into the fortress. It has been so large that several thousand people have been placed there. This almost impartial site often was used as treasure-store. This fortress has been mentioned in the historic annals since XVII c.
- Sno Fortress - Sno Fortress is located in the gorge of one of the right tributary of the river Tergi in Kazbegi – mountainous region of Georgia. The fence is built on the small mount and the tower is erected in the middle of it. Sno Fortress is a distinguished specimen of fortification architecture of late Feudal Age.
- Kazbegi (Gergeti) Trinity - Gergeti Trinity - a cross-domed church of XIV c. is the really proud relic of Georgian Architecture. The composition created with the combination of church and landscape attracts and impresses the observer. The church and the tower bell are located on so high mountain in the gorge of river-Tergi which has Mkinvartsveri as a background; their silhouettes are depicted well on this magnificent, white background.
- Ananuri - Ananuri - an architectural complex of XVI-XVIII cc. was a direct participant of many historical events of Georgia. This ensemble includes the several completely different Christian churches – abundantly decorated with relief monuments and recently revealed wall-paintings; also there are the fortification, fighting towers and the well-preserved impressive architecture of the fortresses.
- Juta – The village- Juta is located in the district of Kazbegi. It is famous for its beautiful nature, besides it's possible to see the alive aurochs on the rocky summits of mountains.
- Sioni of Kazbegi - Sioni of Kazbegi is a three-naved basilica of VIII-IX cc. it is surrounded with magnificent mountain scenery in Kazbegi region.
- Anatori Jvari - Anatori Jvari is a chapel in the village Shatili. It was considered as the common chapel for Shatilioni (Shatili inhabitants). The Anatorelni (ancient inhabitants of Shatili) were the faithful slaves of Anatori Jvari. It was the chapel of Kists and its chamber was erected in their village too.
Zemo (upper) Svaneti
- Zhibiani - Zhibiani is a village located on the highest spot of Svaneti region. Lamaria church is situated on the high hill and surrounded with fence of towers and it overlooks the whole gorge too proudly. Lamaria church dedicated to Holy Virgin is a hall-type church and it is decorated with unique wall-paintings of X-XIII cc.
- Ushguli – The village Ushguli is situated on the altitude of 2400m. It is the settlement located on the highest site in Europe, laid in the narrow gorge of Enguri river. Here you can see the ancient tower accommodation complexes, the oldest of them dates back IX-XI cc. The oldest church of seven churches, located in the village and its surroundings, was built in X-XI cc.
Kvemo (lower) Svaneti
- Zhakhunderi – Zhakhunderi is a village located on the right bank of the river – Tskhenistskali in Lentekhi district. Here you can visit the hall-type church of Medieval centuries, dedicated to St. George. The church is built with carving stones, it has the entrance on the west side and its windows are ornamented. The ornamented wooden door of Zhakhunderi church is preserved in the Art museum of Georgia.
- Chukeli - Chukeli is a hall-type church of X-XII cc. dedicated to Archangel and located in Kvemo (Lower) Svaneti. The church has the multi-angled apse to the East, there was the ornamented wooden door placed in the South entrance that is preserved in Janashia Museum nowadays. There you can see the paintings of Late Feudal Age, the wall of alter is made of stone and the big cross is placed in front of the alter.
- Tvibisi – Tvibisi is a hall-type church of X-XIII cc. dedicated to Archangel and located in Kvemo (Lower) Svaneti.
- Nokalakevi – Nokalakevi was one of the centers of Kolkheti in IV-III cc. BC and later it became the capital of Egrisi – the same Lazika. This town arranged in terraces is surrounded with threefold fence and it is stretched on 20 ha territory. The structures that really deserve to note are: a palace, two baths, some churches-one of which is belonged to the epoch of Christianity spreading. Here you can also find the secret tunnel leading to the river, with its help, the town was provided with water and food in the case of besiege. You can also see the unique material discovered during the archaeological excavations that are preserved and exhibited in the museum built specially for them.
and largest city
|Spoken languages||71% Georgian
|Ethnic groups (2002)||83.8% Georgian
|Government||Unitary semi-presidential republic|
|Area||69,700 km2 (120th)
26,911 sq mi
|Population (2014)||4,935,880 (119th)|
|Time zone||GET (UTC+4)|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||GE|